Aviation materials and tecnologes №S, 2012

UDC: 620.22

E.N. Kablov

Strategical Areas of Developing Materials and Their Processing Technologies for the Period up to 2030

It is expedient to include such areas as "Materials and Fundamental Raw Materials Processing" into the priorities of RF economy modernization with the goal of the technological breakthrough. The new level of the aeronautics development in future can be only ensured by the principally novel materials and technologies, as the traditional ones have been already exhausted. That's why the most important problem for today is the development of strategical areas and primarily it concerns the development of materials for various branches of industry and their processing technologies for the long-term period of time.

Keywords: economy modernization priorities, critical technologies of the scientific development, aeronautics development strategics, priority strategical areas, breakthrough in the materials science, novel materials

UDC: 629.7:620.22

O.G. Ospennikova

Development Strategics of High-Temperature Alloys and Special Steels, Protective and Thermoprotective Coatings

The analysis of R&D development in the field of high-temperature alloys and steels with special properties is presented in the paper along with the world tendencies, raw materials and resource possibilities. The basic latest technologies are given in the field of high-temperature alloys and special steels, which should be the basis for the formation of powerful scientific and technological complex and the foundation of global competent centers, including the high-technological production facilities, ensuring the achievements and leadership of Russia over the whole area of researches and technologies in the priority fields. The basic areas on realizing the measurements concerning the development of the new generation of high-temperature casting and wrought alloys, steels and protective coatings for GTE components are considered within the frames of Strategical Areas of Developing Materials and Their Processing Technologies for the Period up to 2030 on advancing Russian engine building, which will allow to ensure the production of fundamentally new engine prototypes and in full measure favour the further transition of Russian Federation special metallurgy to the new stage of industrialization and the technological structure.

Keywords: high-temperature alloys, protective and thermoprotective coatings, directional solidification, isothermal deformation, ultradispersed powders, gas turbine engines

UDC: 669.24:669.018.44

E.N. Kablov, N.V. Petrushin, I.L. Svetlov, I.M. Demonis

Ni-base casting superalloy of the new generation

The experimental study results of the temperature and orientation relationship of elasticity modulus, short-and long-term strength and low-cycle fatigue of ВЖМ4 Ni-base superalloy single-rystals with the orientation <001>, <011> and <111> are presented along with the microstructure evolution and its effect upon the mechanical properties of Re-containing superalloy single crystals. The basic results of experimental studies of ВЖМ6 and ВЖМ7 Ni-base single-crystal superalloys are considered with the use of computer simulation.

Keywords: superalloy, properties, deformation, heat treatment

UDC: 669.018.44:669.245:621.438

B.S. Lomberg, S.V. Ovsepyan, M.M. Bakradze, I.S. Mazalov

High-temperature Ni-base alloys for GTE components

The basic trends of developing the high-temperature wrought alloys are shown for turbine disks and high-pressure compressors, welded fuselages and combustion chambers along with the production technologies of their semifinished products. The technologies, recovering the properties and increasing the service life of critical engine components after the running time are also presented in the paper.

Keywords: high-temperature alloy, properties, deformation, heat treatment

UDC: 669.018.44

O.A. Bazyleva, E.G. Arginbaeva, E.Yu. Turenko

High-temperature casting intermetallic alloys

The intermetallic materials based on Ni3Al compounds are of interest for the application of combustion chamber components with the operating temperature to 1300°C and turbines in the of cooled nozzle vanes adjustable nozzle shutters and spacers with the operating temperature to 120°C.

Keywords: intermetallide, heat resistance, single crystal, crystallographic orientation, high-temperature GTE components

UDC: 629.7.023:621.438

No TranslationЖаростойкие и теплозащитные покрытия для лопаток турбины высокого давления перспективных ГТД


UDC: 629.7.023

S.A. Myboyadjan, D.A. Alexandrov, D.S. Gorlov, L.P. Egorova, E.E. Bulavintseva

Protective and Strengthening Ion-Plasma Coatings for Blades and Other Critical GTE Compressor Parts

The results of the work, performed in VIAMFSUE during the last period of time on developing the nanolayer and nanostructural erosion- and corrosion-resistant, heat-resistant, damping and fretting-resistant coatings for GTE compressor and fan blades (made of titanium alloys and steels), produced with the use of the ion-plasma methods, the assisted and plasmochemical deposition and dross method are presented in the paper.

Keywords: nanolayer coatings, assisted deposition, ion-plasma coatings, erosion and corrosion-resistant coatings, dross coatings, damping and antifretting coatings

UDC: 669.14+669.15-194.55

E.S. Markova, N.G. Pokrovskaya, A.B. Shalkevich, V.I. Gromov

Maraging Steels as the Advanced Materials for GTE Shafts

The basic features of chemical composition and structure of high-strength maraging steels and their heat treatment are given in the paper along with the necessity of ensuring the high metal purity. The mechanical properties of steels are also presented. The application of the steels ensures the significant increase of the part weight effectiveness.

Keywords: maraging steels, melting methods, heat treatment, mechanical properties

UDC: 669.15

O.A. Tonysheva, N.M. Voznesenskaya, E.A. Eliseev, A.B. Shalkevich

Novel High-Strength Efficiently-Alloyed Nitrogen-Containing Steel of Improved Reliability

The VNS-72 high-strength corrosion-resistant steel of transition (austenitic-maraging) class without critical alloying elements (Co, Mo), possessing high ductility, fracture toughness and reliability characteristics along with the high strength (σв=1750 MPa) has been developed in VIAM.

Keywords: high-strength corrosion-resistant nitrogen-containing weldable steel

UDC: 669.018.29

M.P. Orlov, O.G. Ospennikova, V.I. Gromov

Propogation Mechanisms of the Structural Steel Hydrogen and Beynite Embrittlement during the Service of Large-Size Structures

The fundamental investigation of fracture mechanisms of the roofing stay support, made of martensitic structural steel was carried out in Krylatskoe sport complex. Using the methods of electron microscopy and energy-dispersed X-ray spectrum microanalysis, it was stated that the service crack was propogated during the long-term service period from the cell zone - technological defect in the form of manganese sulphide clustering in the axial zone with the periodical alternation of hydrogen and beynite embrittlement mechanisms, being realized in the form of brittle intergranular fracture and quasicleavage along the beynite plates.

Keywords: complicated technical systems, austenite, martensite, upper and lower beynite, transcrystalline quasicleavage, grain-boundary fracture, plastic pit fracture

UDC: 621.792.8:621.438

V.P. Migunov, D.P. Farafonov, M.Z. Dedovetz, T.I. Stupina

Sealing Materials for GTE Passages

The GTE efficiency increase mainly depends on the radial clearance value in the turbine passage section - between blade tips and casing. The material development for the effective sealing of radial clearances of GTE passages is a complicated materials science problem and, hence, the great number of research works in the world are devoted to it. VIAM FSUE carries out the work on developing the principally new materials of contact friction couple: a composite abrasive wear-resistant material for blade tips and a sealing material based on metallic fibers with the high abradability for stators.

Keywords: gas turbine engine, abradable sealing materials, wear, blade tips

UDC: 669.018.44

E.N. Kablov, V.V. Sidorov, D.E. Kablov, V.E. Rigin, A.V. Goryunov

Present-Day Production Technologies of Rod Billets, Made of Casting Superalloys of New Generation

The basic positions of melting and pouring technology of casting superalloys of new generation (carbon-free, rhenium- and rhenium-ruthenium-containing, intermetallic) in the vacuum induction furnaces are considered in the paper. The technology ensures the production of high-purity metal relative to detrimental impurity content and the stable alloy chemical composition.

Keywords: rod billet, superalloy, microalloying, filtration, refinement, wastes, properties

UDC: 621.74:621.438

E.N. Kablov, V.N. Toloraiya

VIAM - Founder of Domestic Technology for Casting Single-Crystal Turbine Blades of GTE and GTS

The basic development stages of domestic casting technology for single-crystal turbine blades, in particular, the seeding technology, exceeding in its parameters the world level of scientific developments in this area.

Keywords: single crystal, turbine blade, gas turbine engine (GTE)

UDC: 621.438

E.N. Kablov, M.P. Orlov, O.G. Ospennikova

Porosity Generation Mechanisms in the Single-Crystal Turbine Blades and the Kinetics of Their Elimination during Hot Isostatic Pressing

The basic pore types and their generation mechanisms were considered in the single-crystal Ni-base superalloys: pores of casting origin - shrinkage and gaseous porosity as well as pores of diffusion origin, being generated during the process of technological heatings of turbine blade castings. The analysis of the stressed-strained state was performed in the pore location zone during the hot isostatic pressing process with the use of Lame problem solution for thick-walled hollow sphere under the hydrostatic compression conditions: the evaluated calculations of pore elimination kinetics were presented according to the alloy high-temperature creep mechanism and hole diffusion under the pore surface tension effect.

Keywords: nickel-base superalloy, shrinkage, gaseous and diffusion pores: stressed-strained state, hot isostatic pressing

UDC: 669.018.29:621.73.043

E.N. Kablov, O.G. Ospennikova, B.S. Lomberg

Complex Innovation Technology of Isothermal Forging in Air under the Superplasticity Conditions of Superalloy Discs

The complex of the principally new technologies, realized on the specially produced unique equipment, was developed for melting and pressure shaping, not having analogues in the domestic and foreign industries.
In order to achieve the necessary properties of new materials the conception of microstructure monitoring was developed. The temperature-rate parameters of isothermal deformation and subsequent strengthening heat treatment were determined for the production of disk die forgings with the regulated fine-grain structure.

Keywords: disk superalloy, isothermal forging, microstructure

UDC: 621.77

O.G. Ospennikova, M.B. Bubnov, D.V. Kapitanenko

Computer simulation of pressure shaping processes for metallic materials

The present-day principles and approaches are presented for developing the pressure shaping processes of metallic materials. The computer simulation will allow to show the whole production process of disk die forgings, including the preparatory and intermediate operations, such as heating, cooling, burring, punching and the deformation process itself in various transitions and it also will give a possibility to evaluate the process efficiency and the tool reliability, which ensures the well-founded evaluation of the production prime cost.

Keywords: simulation, die forging, computer program, tool

UDC: 669.056:621.438

V.I. Gromov, N.A. Kurpyakova, O.V. Sedov, E.N. Korobova

Vacuum and Ion-Plasma Chemico-Thermal Treatment of Critical Gas Turbine Engine Components

The basic principles of carrying out the processes of vacuum and ion-plasma chemico-thermal treatments are considered in the paper. The complete set of necessary equipment was determined for their realizing. The advantages of vacuum and ion-plasma chemico-thermal treatments are shown in comparison with the traditional gaseous processes of the chemico-thermal treatment. The relation between diffusion layer structure and properties along with the conditions of vacuum and ion-plasma chemico-thermal treatments are also presented.

Keywords: ion-plasma nitriding, vacuum cementation, diffusion layer, carbide phase, austenite, martensite, thermal treatment

UDC: 669.017

V.V. Antipov

Strategics of Developing Titanium, Magnesium, Beryllium and Aluminium Alloys

The metallic materials volume in the airframe structures is left at the level 60%, that's why the keen problem of developing new light-weight and high-strength alloys still remain to be solved. The basic development tendencies and planned works are considered within the frames of the scientific area Titanium, Magnesium, Beryllium and Aluminium Alloys determined on the base of the developed in VIAM Strategical Areas of Developing Materials and Their Processing Technologies for the Period up to 2030.

Keywords: low-density materials, advantageous areas, superalloy, high-technological alloys, SIALs

UDC: 669.715

V.V. Antipov, O.G. Senatorova, E.A. Tkachenko, P.O. Vakhromov

Aluminium Wrought Alloys

Aluminium wrought alloys are left the basic structural materials for airframe structures of the present-day and perspective aeronautical engineering due to the successful set of necessary service characteristics (tensile, strength, compression, fatigue, cracking resistance, corrosion resistance), light-weight, good technological efficiency and masterability in the metallurgical and aircraft production. The paper is concerned with the materials of development history, basic properties, technology, application and development tendencies of the basic and perspective wrought aluminium alloys.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, strength, resource, heat treatment, alloying

UDC: 669.715:669.884

V.V. Antipov, N.I. Kolobnev, L.B. Khokhlatova

Development of Aluminium-Lithium Alloys and Multistage Heat Treatment Conditions

The properties, structure and phase composition of various semifinished products, made of aluminium-lithium alloys of the third generation, in particular, 1424 alloy (Al-Mg-Li-Zn), 1461 alloy (Al-Cu-Li-Zn), 1469 alloy (Al-Cu-Li) and 1441 alloy (Al-Cu-Mg-Li) are presented in the paper. The application efficiency of multistage heat treatment conditions of aluminium-lithium alloys are also given.

Keywords: properties, structure, aluminium-lithium alloys

UDC: 669.017.165:669.295

N.A. Nochovnaya, V.I. Ivanov, E.B. Alekseev, A.S. Kochetkov

Ways of Optimizing the Properties of Alloys Based on Titanium Intermetallides

The possibilities of improving the service properties of intermetallides based on titanium are considered in the paper. It is shown, that the basic ways of improving the service properties, in particular, the ductility characteristics is the development of new innovation technologies for deformation and heat treatments, which ensures the production of controlled structure and phase composition. It leads to increasing the mechanical characteristics and service property stability.

Keywords: intermetallides based on titanium, deformation treatment, heat treatment

UDC: 669.295:669.85

A.I. Khorev, N.A. Nochovnaya, A.L. Yakovlev

Microalloying of Titanium Alloys by Rare-Earth Metals

The basic researches and practical investigations were performed on the microalloying of titanium alloys by rare-earth metals (REM), being applied for aeronautical and rocket-apace engineering. It was stated, that REM positively effect upon the formation of homogeneous macro-, micro-, nano-dimensional structures and mechanical properties at all stages of technological process, starting from melting and up to the structure production.

Keywords: VT23, VT15, VT38 titanium alloys, microalloying, rare-earth metals: Gd - gadolinium; Dy - dysprosium

UDC: 669.721.5:669.715

I.S Kornysheva, E.F. Volkova, E.S. Goncharenko, I.Yu. Mukhina

Application Perspectives of Magnesium and Casting Aluminium Alloys

The analysis of the property level of the presently used domestic magnesium (wrought and casting) and aluminium (casting) alloys is given in the paper. The development tendencies of these structural materials along with the possible ways of increasing their service characteristics are also presented, including the discussion of the structure and phase composition particularities. It is shown, that the new compositions of antiburning materials with the low hygroscopicity have been developed. The protection methods of magnesium melt against the oxidation and burning.

Keywords: magnesium alloy, deformed semifinished products, hydroextrusion process, superplastic deformation, microstructure, phase composition, profiled casting, antiburning additive, casting tightness, casting aluminium alloys

UDC: 669.725

V.S. Kaskov

Beryllium and Materials on Its Base

The brief review on the application of beryllium and its alloys in the products of aeronautical, space and medical engineering is given in the paper. The perspective development tendencies of the progressive technologies are shown in the field of new beryllium-containing steels and alloys.

Keywords: beryllium, technology, foil

UDC: 669.018.95

V.V. Antipov, O.G. Senatorova, N.F. Lukina, V.V. Sidelnikov, V.V. Shestov

Laminated Metal-Polymer Composite Materials

SIAL (glass-reinforced plastic and aluminium) is a perspective structural laminated hybrid material, consisting of thin aluminium sheets of structural alloys and plastic interlayers based on adhesive prepregs, reinforced by high-strength glass fillers. The basic structure and property features including the data on fatigue characteristics of riveted joints and elements are presented along with the fire resistance test results of advanced SIAL structural laminated material. The leading developers, investigators, researchers and SIAL material production technology are also given in the paper.

Keywords: laminated material, density, fatigue, crack resistance, fire resistance

UDC: 678.8

D.V. Graschenkov, L.V. Chursova

Development Strategics of Composite and Functional Materials.

The development tendencies of the present-day materials science show, that the developments and researches are presently carried out in the world in the field of composite materials, reinforcing components, their binders and processing technologies.
The market segments of science-intensive structural composite and special functional materials and also products of them are not sufficiently mastered in Russia, that's why there is the necessity of developing new materials and technologies. The realization of the set tasks is impossible without appropriate infrastructural solutions, which will require the establishment of specialized competence centers, in other words, the national laboratories of polymer composite materials, metallic and ceramic structural composite materials, functional materials. The great demand in the field of applying composite materials for various products and the growth of their production volume will require the considerable advancement of existing technological process automation.

Keywords: polymer composite materials, technologies, functional materials, development strategics, aviation

UDC: 678.8

I.N. Gulyaev, G.M. Gunyaev, A.E. Raskutin

Polymer Composite Materials with the Adaptation Functions and State Diagnostics.

Polymer composite materials (glass-, organo- and carbon fiber reinforced plastics) firmly won the place among structural materials and found a wide application in the aeronautical industry and space engineering.
The development of the present-day smart PCM, possessing the complex of functions, capable to react upon the ambient conditions and outer effects is one of the perspective areas of increasing the safety of the aeronautical engineering. These materials are able to carry out selfdiagnostics during the service and directly advance their parameters under the complicated or extreme situations with the goal of retaining the structure operation ability and reducing the negative ambient effect to minimum.
The performed researches on the development of smart materials, possessing adaptation properties and the built-in control for damages, appearing in the material structure during the service and the possibilities of applying these materials in the flying vehicle structure elements are presented in the paper.

Keywords: polymer composite material, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, smart material, adaptation actuators, sensor element, built-in control

UDC: 678.8

I.F. Davydova, N.S. Kavun

Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics - Multifunctional Composite Materials.

Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) are left up to the present time the materials, occupying the leading position among polymer composites in the application volume of the aircraft building and other branches of industry and they are simply indispensable in the structures of radiotechnical designation.
The researches of GFRPs based on polyimide, epoxy, phenol and nonorganic binders and various glass fillers are presented in the paper. The GFRPs on the base of epoxy-binders are applied for the production of highly loaded structures. The glass textolites based on polyimide, silicon-organic and nonorganic binders have been developed for the operation at the elevated temperatures. The examples of GFRPs application in the products of aviation and rocketry are also given in the paper.

Keywords: glass fiber reinforced plastics, epoxy, polyimide, silicon-organic binders, mechanical characteristics, flammability, dielectric properties

UDC: 678.8

R.R. Mukhametov, K.R. Akhmadieva, M.A. Kim, A.N. Babin

Melt Binders for Advanced Production Methods for PCM of New Generation.

Novel binders of various classes for the advanced production methods of PCM are given in the paper. The technological and service properties of binders, being processed according to the melt technologies are also presented.

Keywords: epoxy binders, RTM, RFI, structural plastics

UDC: 678.8

O.B. Zastrogina, N.I. Shvetz, V.I. Postnov, E.A. Serkova

Phenolformaldehyde binders for interior materials of the new Generation

The properties of new phenolformaldehyde binders are presented for the interior materials. The PC-H binder possesses the set of physic-chemical and technological properties at the level of foreign analogues (Cycom 799HE and HexPly M 41 types) and it ensures the production of the whole complex of fire-safety materials with the heat release of 20‒35 kW/m2 for passenger aeroplane interiors. The rapidly-cured ВСФ-16М binder allows to produce articles of three-ply honeycomb panels according to the crush core technology.

Keywords: highly reactive phenolformaldehyde oligomer, fire-safety interior materials, "crush core" technology

UDC: 678.8

G.F. Zhelezina

Fracture Features of Organoplastics under the Impact Effects.

The impact resistance of organoplastics with the different compositions was investigated. The VKO-19 organoplastic based on epoxy-sulfone binder has the advantages under the low-rate impact effect. Under the conditions of ballistic effect the most effective composites are the aramid laminar-woven ones (VKO-2TB, VKO-20) with the partially nonmonolithic structure: their polymer matrix should be placed primarily between the layers of reinforcing fabric, not filling interfiber space.

Keywords: aramid organoplastic, impact resistance, ballistic resistance

UDC: 678.8

G.M. Gunyaev, L.V. Chursova, O.A. Komarova, A.G. Gunyaeva

Structural Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP), Modified by Nanoparticles.

The article deals with the study of structural CFRP properties depending on the HTS astralene nanoparticle content in the epoxy matrix composition and their effect upon the process of its curing. The minimum astralene content, ensuring the achievement of composite optimum mechanical properties and thermal resistance was determined.
The composition and production technology of the first domestic carbon nanocomposite was developed by modifying it through the introduction of ENFB-2M carbon nanoparticles of fulleroid structure - NTS astralene into the matrix composition. The thorough investigation was performed to determine its properties and to compare them with the properties of CFRP-analogue, not containing nanoparticles in its composition. It was stated, that VKU-18 developed material exceeds the material-analogue in the set of mechanical, service properties and their stability. In this case the endurance and long-term strength are increased by 15-20%, service temperature by 20ºC, compression and interlaminar shear strength from 10 to 45% and from 10 to 35%, respectively, with the test temperature interval increase from 20 to 170ºC. The material possesses the higher thermo- and electrical conductivity, which gives the lightning resistance to it. The technological documentation for VKU-18 material has been drawn up.
The effect of increasing the physico-mechanical and service properties of CFRPs with the introduction of astralenes into the matrix composition was confirmed on the example of CFRPs with various matrices and reinforcing fillers.

Keywords: polymer composite materials, carbonnanocomposites, nanoparticles, astralenes, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, carbon fabrics, modification

UDC: 678.8

A.E. Raskutin, V.A. Goncharov

Computer Simulation of PCM Technological Production Process by Vacuum Infusion Method.

The basic approaches for realizing the computer simulation of the polymer composite material (PCM) production processes by the vacuum infusion method are presented. The article is concerned the basic processes, occurring during PCM moulding, which should be taken into account, when simulating the whole production cycle. The possibilities of applying the computer simulation are given for determining the moulding parameters still at the development stage with the goal of optimizing the technological vacuum infusion process, which reduces the risks, associated with the development of a new product. The algorithm for realizing the mathematical model is also given for obtaining the computer simulation result, at most approximating to the real conditions, after the example of the finite element method.

Keywords: simulation, vacuum infusion, polymer composite material, finite element method, permeability

UDC: 678.8

A.V. Khrulkov, M.I. Dushin, Yu.O. Popov, D.I. Kogan

Studies and Development of Autoclave and Autoclave-Free Technologies for PCM Moulding.

The PCM production processes by autoclave and autoclave-free methods on the base of a number of epoxy binders and carbon fillers of both Russian and import production were studied and described in the paper. The study results of physico-mechanical properties of the produced materials are also presented.

Keywords: composite materials, autoclave moulding, autoclave-free moulding, prepreg, vacuum infusion

UDC: 678.8

G.N. Petrova, D.N. Perfilova, V.I. Gryaznov, E.Ya. Beyder

Thermoplastic elastomer for the substitution of rubbers

The properties and application fields of thermoplastics, developed in VIAM FSUE, are presented in the paper. Their advantages are shown in comparison with rubbers, including the ecologically pure production method (dynamic vulcanization). All developed materials entirely meet АП-25 inflammability requirements.

Keywords: thermoelastoplastics, rubbers, dynamic vulcanization, inflammability, fire safety, weather resistance, chemical resistance, sealing

UDC: 678.8

O.A. Eliseev, L.L. Krasnov, E.I. Zaitzeva, A.V. Savenkova

Development and Modification of Elastomeric Materials for the Application under the All-Climatic Conditions

The mycological injury protection of sealing materials, applied in the aircraft engineering: fungus-resistant fluorosiloxane sealant for the intraseam sealing, fungus-resistant tape sealant based on polysulfide, ensuring the sealing of conjugated surfaces with noncontrolled clearances has been developed in VIAM.

Keywords: fungus resistance, thermoresistant sealant and compounds, fuel-resistant polysulfide sealants, heating-free vulcanization, tape sealant, low-molecular silicone rubbers, liquid thiokols

UDC: 667.6

L.V. Semenova, N.E. Malova, B.A. Kuznetsova, A.A. Pozhoga

Varnish and paint materials and coatings

The information, concerning the varnish and paint coatings, being used for the aircraft engineering is presented in the paper. The properties and application technologies of new weather-resistant, waterproofing, ecologically-safety varnish and paint materials, being applied as anticorrosion, protective and decorative, functional coatings for painting the metallic and polymer composite materials of flying vehicle structures, engines and devices are also exhibited.

Keywords: varnish and paint materials, primers, enamels, coatings, weather resistance

UDC: 621.792.053

N.F. Lukina, L.A. Dementieva, A.P. Petrova, A.A. Serezhenkov

Structural and High-Temperature Adhesive

The adhesive types (high-strength, tape and liquid adhesives of hot setting, paste-like ones of cold-setting and high-temperature adhesives), being developed by Laboratory of Adhesives of VIAM FSUE for years of its activity are presented in the paper. The information, concerning the basic properties of adhesives, their designation and the application fields is also given.

Keywords: tape adhesive, high-temperature adhesive, strength properties, adhesive bonding, operating temperature range

UDC: 629.7.023

V.V. Semyonychev, R.K. Salakhova, E.V. Tyurikov, V.A. Ilyin

Protective and Functional Galvanic Coatings, Produced with the use of Nanosize Particles

The mechanism of forming the protective and functional coatings, deposited in the electrolytes, containing nanosize particles is proposed in the paper. The developed coating properties based on zinc, nickel, trivalent chromium, were investigated along with their advantages as compared to the standard analogues.

Keywords: nanoparticles, "trivalent" chromium coatings, galvanic alloys based on nickel, galvanic alloys based on zinc

UDC: 629.7.023

V.A. Bogatov, S.V. Kondrashov, Yu.A. Khokhlov

Multifunctional Optical Coatings and Materials

The study results on the development of multifunctional optical coatings and materials for the aeronautical engineering products are presented in the paper. The questions of mathematical modeling, low-temperature production technology of optical coatings onto the polymer materials and the production of laminated glazing materials and polymer films.

Keywords: low-emission coating, thermoprotective coating, adaptive coating, organic glass, magnetron atomization

UDC: 678.8

A.A. Belyaev, S.V. Kondrashov, V.V. Lepeshkin, A.M. Romanov

Radioabsorbing Materials

The characteristics of radioabsorbing materials (RAM), designated for ensuring the electromagnetic compatibility of the radiotechnical equipment, radioabsorbing coatings and structural RAM are given in the present paper. The analysis of advantageous application of nanostructurizational RAM was also carried out.

Keywords: radioabsorbing material, structural radioabsorbing material, electromagnetic compatibility

UDC: 678.8

V.A. Bogatov, S.V. Kondrashov, I.A. Mansurova, V.T. Minakov

Study of Carbon Nanotube Effecting Mechanism on the Nanocomposite Physico-Mechanical Properties

On the base of literature data and performed experiment analysis it is shown, that the properties of nanocomposites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy oligomers are determined by both the reinforcing nanofiller effect and by changing the curing kinetics and epoxy composition structure. The higher conversion degree is achieved under the conditions, insufficient for the full system curing (lack of hardener, not enough high curing temperatures) in the epoxy compositions, modified by carbon nanotubes. The transverse chemical lacing network in the epoxynanocomposites becomes more susceptible to the relaxation under the conditions of full curing.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, epoxy oligomers, transverse chemical lacing network

UDC: 620.197

St.S. Solntsev, V.A. Rosenenkova, N.A. Mironova

High-Temperature Glass-Ceramic Coatings and Composite Materials

The results of developing high-temperature glass-ceramic coatings for fibrous metallic sealing materials, beryllium alloys and C/SiC composite materials are presented in the paper along with their technological and physico-chemical properties.

Keywords: ceramo-forming polymer, polycarbosilane, composite material, complex coating

UDC: 666.266.6

D.V. Graschenkov, S.St. Solntsev, N.E. Schegoleva, A.S. Naumova, B.N. Gaponov

Glass-Ceramic Composite Material

The perspectiveness of glass-ceramic material in case of its application as a matrix for advanced composite materials is considered in the paper. The results, obtained during the development of high-temperature glass-ceramic composite material, starting from the pursuance of complex researches, concerning the structure formation to mastering the production technology and studying the properties are also presented. Such methods as the infrared spectroscopy, derivatographical and X-ray phase analysis were used during the investigations.

Keywords: glass-ceramic material, composite material, sol-gel technology, crystallization

UDC: 669.018.95

E.N. Kablov, B.V. Schetanov, D.V. Graschenkov, A.A. Shavnev, A.N. Nyafkin

Metallic composite materials on the base of Al‒SiC

The basic thermophysical and mechanical properties of metal-matrix composite material (MMC) of Al‒SiC system were studied. The material full-scale tests were carried out in the composition of power transistor modules. MMC of Al‒SiC system was preferred to the heat-dissipating products of power electronics and transforming engineering.

Keywords: composite material, products for power electronics, power transistor modules

UDC: 66.045.3

Yu.A. Ivakhnenko, V.G. Babashov, A.M. Zimichev, E.V. Tinyakova

High-temperature thermoinsulating and thermoproteclive materials on the base of refractory compound fibers

The data on developing the polycrystalline discrete and continuous alumina fibers, thermoprotective materials on their base are given in the present paper.

Keywords: thermoprotective materials, discrete fiber, continuous fiber, alumina

UDC: 620.179

M.R. Orlov

Strategical Development Tendencies of VIAM FSUE Testing Center

The technical possibilities, scientific potential and the development perspectives of VIAM FSUE Testing Center are shown in the field of research works within the frames of activity Fundamentally-Oriented Researches, Material Qualification, Non-Destructive Control and Strategical Areas of Developing Materials and Their Processing Technologies for the Period up to 2030. The accreditation activity of Testing Center along with the certificate numbers is also presented in the paper.

Keywords: chemico-analytical researches, metal-physical studies, thermophysical investigations, mechanical tests, non-destructive control methods, fire safety, mycology, climatic testing

UDC: 669.055

A.F. Letov, F.N. Karachevtsev, N.V. Gundobin, V.I. Titov

Development of Standard Alloy Composition Specimens of Aircraft Application

The questions of developing the standard alloy composition specimens for the spectrum analysis were considered in VIAM FSUE. It was shown, that the development of new standard specimen types was necessary for ensuring the unity of measurements in the aircraft branch. The development system of standard alloy composition specimens in VIAM FSUE, the particularities of charge composition computation, standard specimen melting and their chemical composition certification procedure with the use of the reference standard are presented in the paper. The advantages of the development scheme and the production of approved standard specimens developed jointly by VIAM FSUE and VNIIOFI FSUE are also described.

Keywords: standard composition specimens, spectrum analysis, development of standard specimens, alloys of aircraft application

UDC: 621.438+62-226.2

M.R. Orlov, M.S. Yakimova, A.F. Letov

Working Capacity Analysis of Single-Crystal High-Pressure Turbine Blades of Ground Gas-Turbine Set

The service feature of ground gas-turbine sets is the use of natural gas, containing hydrogen sulphide and moisture, as a fuel. As a result of hydrogen sulphide and water vapour dissociation, as well as the catalytic methane conversion on the Ni-base alloy surface, the atomic hydrogen is liberated, which leads to the realization of hydrogen embrittlement mechanism of Ni-base superalloys.
The mechanical tests of single-crystal specimens made of GS26-VI Ni-base superalloy in the hydrogen-containing electrolyte along with the electron microscopic investigations allowed to establish the fractographic features of developing the superalloy hydrogen embrittlement mechanism and to evaluate the level of its static strength.

Keywords: GS26-VI single-crystal superalloy, strengthening γ'-phase, creep, hydrogen embrittlement, catalytic hydrocarbon conversion

UDC: 620.1

L.V. Prokhodtseva, E.V. Filonova, S.A. Naprienko, N.S. Moiseeva

Study of developing the fracture process regularities of ВТ41 alloy under the cyclic loading conditions

The effect of microstructure type, fatigue loading cycle conditions and the test temperature upon the fatigue crack growth rate and fracture surface of specimens made of ВТ41 die forgings was studied. It is shown, that the reflection intensity magnification from (0001) plane is observed with increasing the stress intensity coefficient scattering and it is proved by x-ray diffraction method and EBSD analysis of the fracture surface. It was stated, that the disorientation spectrum change of earge-and-medium angle boundaries was observed with the crack growing.

Keywords: ВТ41 alloy, microstructure crystallographic texture, fractography, fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR), EBSD analysis

UDC: 678.8

V.N. Kirillov, O.V. Startsev, V.A. Efimov

Climatic Resistance and Damaging of Polymer Composite Materials, Problems and Ways of Their Solution

The basic areas of works on studying the climatic resistance of polymer composite materials (PCM), performed in VIAM for the last 5 years (2008-2012):
- study of PCM climatic resistance in the various climatic zones of Russia;
- use of new methods for studying the material structure after the climatic factor effect;
- investigation of the climatic factor effect and mechanical loading on PCM structure and mechanical properties;
- modernization of the experimental base for the climatic testing of materials;
- development of new normative documentation for carrying out PCM climatic investigations a.o.
Eight new normative methodical materials have been composed for climatic researches.
The developed model of Klimat election base of polymer materials is given in the paper.
The investigations of the climatic material resistance, performed in VIAM climatic centers: Moscow Center of Climatic Tests and Gelendzhik Center of Climatic Tests.

Keywords: polymer composite materials (PCM), climatic resistance, PCM structure study methods, normative documents of PCM climatic tests, electron base of polymer materials

UDC: 620.179.16

A.V. Stepanov, E.I. Kosarina, N.A. Savvina, V.E. Usachev

Macro- and Microporosity in Alloys Based on Aluminium and Nickel and Its Revealing by X-Raying Methods of Non-Destructive Control

The test results of complex-shaped castings made of alloys of silumin group (aluminium-silicon system) obtained with the use of X-raying control, are given in the paper. The X-raying scale of gaseous porosity was developed along with its application conditions, which comply with the conditions of traditional X-raying scale, performed on the radiographical film.
The possibility of revealing the superalloy microporosity with the size of 9-14 microns by X-raying and X-ray microscopy methods is shown.
The results of the performed work are the base for investigating macro- and microdefects of light alloys, nonmetallic or composite materials, both by means of X-raying and X-ray microscopy.

Keywords: X-raying non-destructive control, X-raying, X-ray microscopy, gaseous porosity, casting alloys of "silumin" group, Ni-base superalloys, macro- and microdefects

UDC: 536.46

S.L. Barbotko

Fire safety of aviation materials

The history of developing the requirements and methods for determining the fire safety of aviation materials is considered in the paper. The present-day requirements imposed upon the aviation materials and structural elements of various functional application are analyzed. The comparison of data on fire safety is presented for the materials of different chemical nature.

Keywords: fire safety, test methods, polymer composites, aircraft engineering

UDC: 620.179

V.S. Erasov, N.O. Yakovlev, G.A. Nuzhny

Qualification Tests and the Study of Aviation Materials Strength

The necessity and advantages of statistical approach for obtaining the mechanical test results of materials, used for flying vehicle structures are presented in the paper. The particularities of fatigue tests and the test advantages under the rigid cyclic loading conditions along with their usage for aviation organic glasses are also considered with the account of the advantages of using the generalized criterion of corrosion damage ability.

Keywords: basis, selection, tolerance limit, rigid cycling loading, high-elastic deformation, corrosion damage ability

UDC: 620.179

P.L. Zhuravleva, D.V. Zaitsev

Study of Carbon Fiber Structure with the Use of Diffraction Methods

The basic methods of X-ray structure analysis and transmission electron microscopy along with the examples of their complex application in studying the carbon fiber structure with the locality to 1 nm are considered in the paper. The polyacrylonitrile fibers (PAN-fibers) of the domestic production and carbon fiber (CF) on the base of PAN, withdrawn out of carbon fillers of domestic and foreign production were studied. The carbon fiber structure was studied by the diffraction methods, the crystallite sizes in the carbon layers were determined, the CF texture was examined, the maximum texture width (crystallite disorientation angle) was defined, the morphology of CF structural constituents was studied along with the pile of layers and discontinuities. The used methodical approaches allow to study the CF structure and the obtained results give a possibility to set the relation between CF structure and properties.

Keywords: carbon fibers, diffraction, structure, texture, crystallite, morphology, elasticity modulus

UDC: 669.245

I.P. Zhegina, L.V. Kotelnikova, V.B. Grigorenko, Z.N. Zimina

Fracture features of wrought Ni-base alloys and steels

The statistics on revealing the reasons of accidental failure of steel components during the service is presented in the paper along with the problems concerning the susceptibility of martensitic steels to the hydrogen embrittlement and the hydrogen effect upon the delayed fracture. The study results on the diagnostic indications of preliminary fracture over the surface area of ЭК151-ИД, ВЖ175 and ВЖ175У-ИД Ni-base superalloy products.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, delayed fracture, loading rate, preliminary fracture, slip lines, deformation localization

UDC: 678.8:620.111.3

V.V. Murashov

Determination of physico-mechanical characteristics and composition of polymer composites by acoustic methods

The problems and possibilities of the technical diagnostics of polymer composite materials (PCM) were considered for parts and structures, excluding their fracture. As it was reported, VIAM developed the new scientific discovery in the field of PCM diagnostics, allowing to determine elastic and strength properties, porosity, density, matrix and filler content, material matrix curing degree in airframe structures and other critical products by the ultrasonic control with the use of lazer-acoustic method. In this case the informativeness of acceptable acoustic signals, passed through the material
was studied and the accuracy determination improvement of material phisico-mechanical properties was achieved due to the complex methods of diagnostics parameters.

Keywords: technical diagnostics, polymer composite materials, material physico- mechanical properties, correlation equations, diagnostics parameters, acoustic signals